The Chinese Valence-Arousal Phrases (CVAP) is an affective lexicon containing 2,998 multi-words phrases. Each phrase consists of an affective word and one or more modifiers such as negators, modals and degree adverbs modifying the word. Each phrase is manually annotated with a real-valued score for both valence and arousal dimensions. The valence represents the degree of positive and negative sentiment, and arousal represents the degree of calm and excitement. Both dimensions range from 1 (highly negative or calm) to 9 (highly positive or excited). The scatter plot of the CVAP is shown below.


Modifier Type Phrase Valence_Mean Valence_SD Arousal_Mean Arousal_SD
deg 十分有趣 8.222 0.533 7.063 0.390
mod 應該開心 5.986 0.242 5.350 0.456
neg 不喜歡 3.033 0.481 5.788 0.605
neg_deg 沒有太難過 4.478 0.413 4.675 0.538

  • Valence/Arousal_Mean/SD: Mean and standard deviation of the valence/arousal ratings.
  • deg: degree
  • mod: modal
  • neg: negation

  • Download

    CVAP 1.0 (2,250 phrases; released on May 15, 2017): An official training set used in the IJCNLP 2017 Shared Task on Dimensional Sentiment Analysis for Chinese Phrases.

    CVAP 2.0 (2,998 phrases; released on Dec 15, 2020)

    List of negators

    List of modals

    List of degree adverbs


    Liang-Chih Yu


    Department of Information Management, Yuan Ze University